FROM THE IBERIANS TO THE BARBARIANS
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During the Iberian period, the settlements tend to be found in the low hills at about 600 metres altitude above sea level or below. There are materials from this era in Campillos, Cañete la Real, Abdalajis valley, Alora, Antequera, Colmenar, Periana, and Archidona. Later, the first colonizers frequently uncover the Iberian-Punic or Phoenician-Punic sites on the coast. Some of the remains found are especially significant in places such as Toscanas in Velez-Malaga, Trayamar in Algarrobo, and the Guadalhorce mouth in Malaga.
The Phoenicians arrived on the coast of the province around 1.000 B.C., creating the city-factory of Malacca (in touch with the Tartessos Empire), according to Estrabon, around the actual Alcazaba hills. Following the Phoenicians example, the Greek colonists arrived in the 7th century, coinciding with the peak of the Phoenician factories. They founded Mainake, to the east of Malacca. In the face of the tension which arose between the Phoenicians and Greeks, the former called for the Carthaginians to help, and once the Greeks were defeated, Carthage extended its domains over Andalusia, the Carthaginians fortified the Phoenician Malacca and destroyed the Greek Mainake. The power of the Carthaginians allowed a certain urban development and a relative prosperity. There are findings of their presence in Ronda, Antequera, Arenas, Campillos, Comares, and many other towns in the province.
The confrontations between the Carthaginians and Romans since the mid 4th century for the dominion over the Mediterranean, caused the notable Roman influence with the massive arrival of the Romans during the second Punic war. During the Roman rule, life in the province of Malaga developed in some cities and country villas. This civilization proves again the special predilection for the coast, as they appear in most of the coastal towns. The Torrox lighthouse, the Puerta Oscura in Malaga, the Verde river in Marbella, the Torres in Estepona, San Luis de Sabinillas in Manilva are all examples of this tendency. The Guadalhorce valley or near the town centre follow the coast in preference, as in the case of the Antequera plain, Teba, Alameda, Alhaurin de la Torre, Alhaurin el Grande, Alora, Campillos.
The most famous cities of that era are Malaka (Malaga); Osqua, Antikaria, Aratispi, and Singilia Barba (in Antequera); Sabora (Cañete la Real); Cartima (Cartama); Lacipo (Casares); Suel (Fuengirola); Cilniana (Marbella); Acinipo (Ronda), and Nescania (Abdalajis valley).